YouTube – organic chemistry

The videos on organic chemistry fall into five areas: organic 1, organic 2, additional topics, problem sets, and reactions from the literature. A complete list of all playlists can be downloaded as a pdf.

organic 1

Your instructor might include different topics in your organic 1 course.

  • organic chemistry review
    valence electrons, effective nuclear charge, periodic table trends, electronegativity, octet rule, formal charges
  • hybridization
    hybrid orbitals, bond angles & atomic geometry, examples of different hybridizations, drawing hybrid atoms, hybridization flaws
  • structure
    Lewis dot structure, constitutional isomers, condensed structural formulas, line-angle structures, converting structure types
  • bonding
    orbital energy diagrams, bond formation, sigma bonds, pi bonds, orbital pictures of simple molecules
  • functional groups
    hydrocarbons, R-groups, alkyl groups, benzene rings, alcohols, amines, carbonyls, acid derivatives
  • introductory nomenclature
    naming rules, alkanes, alkyl groups, haloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes
  • intermediate nomenclature
    naming ethers and alkoxy groups, branched alkyl groups, aldehydes and ketones, and acid derivatives
  • acid-base reactions
    pKa values, pKa tables, factors that affect acidity, reaction mechanism
  • charge stabilization
    atomic size, electronegativity, resonance, examples of resonance, inductive effect, hybridization, hyperconjugation
  • conformational analysis
    molecular flexibility, Newman projects of alkanes, chair conformations of cyclohexanes, chair flipping, barriers to alkene rotation
  • introductory stereochemistry
    chirality, Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules, drawing and naming stereocenters, enantiomers, diastereomers, meso compounds, alkene configuration
  • intermediate stereochemistry
    phantom atoms, naming molecules with multiple stereocenters
  • reaction energy
    bonding energy, conformational energy, reaction coordinate diagrams, transition states, intermediates of carbon, stability trends in carbanions and carbocations
  • reaction types
    substitutions, eliminations, additions
  • alkyl halide substitutions and eliminations
    types of halides, SN2 inversion, E2 regioselectivity, E2 bases, discerning between SN2 and E2, SN1 solvolysis, SN1 stereochemistry, hydride shifts, E1, discerning SN1 and E1
  • alcohol substitutions and eliminations
    alcohols as leaving groups, substitutions with HX, tosylates and mesylates, alcohol solvolysis, alcohol eliminations
  • sample substitution and elimination problems
    reaction triangles, SN2 problems, E2 problems, SN1 problems, E1 problems
  • alkene additions
    addition of H-X, carbocation rearrangements, hydration, hydrogenation, dihalogenation, halohydrins, epoxidation, epoxide opening
  • sample addition reaction problems
    cyclic alkene additions, terminal alkene hydration, anti additions, halonium ion chemistry
  • introductory NMR spectroscopy
    NMR terminology, chemical shift, peak multiplicity, peak integration, using NMR to distinguish between multiple problems
  • aromaticity and resonance
    aromatic stability, Huckel’s rules, aromatic or aliphatic, aromatic ions
  • electrophilic aromatic substitution
    EAS mechanism, halogenation, nitration, aniline synthesis, Friedel-Crafts alkylation, Friedel-Crafts acylation, Clemmensen reduction, Wolff-Kischner reduction
  • formation and reaction of alkoxides
    alcohol deprotonation, solvents for alkoxides, Williamson ether synthesis, E2 reactions with alkoxide bases
  • alkyne chemistry
    differences between alkenes and alkynes, reduction of alkynes, deprotonation to make acetylides, acetylide alkylations
  • organometallic reagents
    synthesis of organometallics, Grignard reagents, organolithium reagents, other types of organometallics
  • introductory carbonyl chemistry
    synthesis of organometallics, Grignard reagents, organolithium reagents, other types of organometallics
  • nucleophilic additions on carbonyls
    hydride reagents, organometallic additions, hydride additions
  • enolate chemistry
    bases for making enolates, LDA as a base, enolate alkylation, kinetic and thermodynamic enolates, aldol reaction, aldol condensation, unsaturated ketones
  • acid derivatives
    types of acid derivatives, acid derivative interconversion, synthesis of carboxylic acids, acid chlorides, esters, amides, nitrile synthesis, acid derivative hydrolysis, reaction mechanism
  • nucleophilic additions on acid derivatives
    additions to carboxylic acids, ester, amide, and nitrile additions, reactions of CO2, example problems

organic 2

Your instructor might include different topics in your organic 2 course.

  • advanced alkyl halide reactions
    nucleophile polarizability, SN2 inversion, phenacyl effect, anti elimination, alkyl shifts
  • reaction kinetics
    rate equations, reaction order, reaction mechanism
  • radical reactions
    homolytic bond cleavage, radical stability, initiation, propagation, termination, radical halogenation
  • ether chemistry
    ether synthesis, ether cleavage, benzyl ethers, THP ethers, protecting groups
  • advanced alkene additions
    hydroboration-oxidation, alkyne hydration, keto-enol tautomerization, dihydroxylation, oxidative cleavage, radical addition of H-X
  • EAS regioselectivity
    ortho, meta, and para positions, resonance, electron-donating groups, electron-withdrawing groups, halogens as directing groups
  • diazonium ion chemistry
    anilines, diazonium ions, reactions of diazonium ions, azo dyes
  • nucleophilic aromatic substitutions
    SNAr mechanism, types of substitutions, SNAr scope, types of aromatic rings, carbonyl analogy
  • cycloaddition chemistry
    Diels-Alder cycloaddition, regioselectivity, diene and dienophile stereochemistry, end effect, 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions
  • cross-coupling reactions
    palladium catalytic cycle, Negishi coupling, Stille coupling, Suzuki coupling, Sonogashira coupling, Buchwald-Hartwig coupling
  • acetals, ketals, and enols
    acetals, ketals, acetal mechanism, protecting groups, tautomers, ketone halogenation
  • acid derivative enolates
    ester enolates, Claisen condensation, transestification, acetoacetic ester synthesis, Dieckmann condensation, amide enolates, nitrile enolates
  • amines, imines, and enamines
    types of amines, amine synthesis, imine formation mechanism, reductive amination, enamine formation mechanism, Stork enamine alkylation, enamine acylation, amide reduction
  • Wittig reaction
    organophosphorous functional groups, phosphine nucleophilicity, Wittig reaction, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction
  • Michael addition
    Michael addition, Michael acceptors, Michael donors, Robinson annulation
  • polymer chemistry
    addition polymers, cationic, anionic, and radical polymerization, condensation polymers, polyesters, polyamides, polycarbonates, resin identification codes
  • molecular orbital theory and modeling
    MO theory, hybridization, output files, frontier molecular orbitals, Huckel theory

additional organic content

These playlists include material that many instructors might include in their classes but I do not cover in mine. Some of this content might be considered advanced material.

  • No additional problem set videos have been created (yet).

problem sets

This single playlist provides video solutions to problem sets that are available on this site.

  • No additional problem set videos have been created (yet).

reactions in the literature

This single playlist highlights examples of literature reactions that are commonly seen in undergraduate organic chemistry classes. All these videos are 5-minutes or shorter.